Monday, May 25, 2020

Animal Experimentation Should Be Legal - 2371 Words

Do you, your children, or your pet get vaccinations? Do you use household products? Do you use men or women beauty products? Do you use over the counter medicines? For most people the answer to these questions is yes. Though these items would not have been marketed had they not been tested on dogs, cats, and other animals. Scientists have used animals for experiments since the beginning of time. Animal experimentation has been the topic of debate for many years. The debate is deciding whether it is morally or ethically worth the health and life of animals to save the lives of humans. Opponents of animal experimentation argue it is cruel and unnecessary to use animals and that other alternatives should be used. Even though, animal experiments have contributed to providing society with great medical advances, like vaccinations. Without animal experimentation the safety of new treatments, chemicals, and products for human use cannot be determined. Animal research not only benefits human s, but animals as well. Animal experimentations are necessary in order for scientist to advance in the knowledge about diseases, illnesses, as well as develop treatments, cures, and test medical devices. Animal experiments have been a part of biomedical research for hundreds of years. Beginning with Aristotle, (384-322 BC) and Erasistratus, (034-258 BC) to Galen (129-19/217 AD), experiments were widely done on live animals, called vivisection, to discover the functions of living organisms and toShow MoreRelatedShould Animal Experimentation Be Legal Or Not?2761 Words   |  12 Pagesprevent animal experimentation for experimental medications for humans? Problem to be Addressed There is a massive debate going on about whether animal experimentation for experimental drugs should be legal or not. Both sides question whether animal’s lives or America’s knowledge is more important. Several claim that animal testing is needed because many lives can be saved with the awareness that is gained from each test. Others do not agree with these people. They believe that animals should not beRead MoreAnimal Experimentation And The Medical Field1043 Words   |  5 Pages the discussion about animal experimentation would be brought up either in a Science or English class. The discussions would last about three quarters of a period, and they would go nowhere because nobody could agree whether it was a good or bad thing to do. I would always be in the middle of the debate because, I believed that it was a good thing. I am for animal experimentation because it has revolutionized the medical field, regulates the overpopulation of certain animal species in the e nvironmentRead MoreAnimals In Experimentation. This Essay Will Explore The1684 Words   |  7 Pages Animals in Experimentation This essay will explore the benefit of animals being used in biomedical research, the actions implemented to protect animal welfare as well as other viable options to minimize harm to animals. Science experiments using animals have created a foundation for advances in biomedical sciences. Animals used in medical sciences can be traced back to 384-322 BCE in Greek writings of Aristotle followed by Erasistratus, 304-358 BCE (Dey). Some of the most rudimentary knowledgeRead MoreThe True Cost Of Animal Experimentation Essay1210 Words   |  5 PagesThe True Cost of Animal Experimentation Imagine being held captive in an unnatural environment, alone and frightened, with burns and open wounds covering any and all exposed skin. On top of this, picture living in inadequate housing, being handled improperly which leads to serious injury, not knowing if and when the next meal is coming, and finally, not having access to proper medical treatment when required. Unfortunately, this is not an imaginary scenario for many species of animals worldwide todayRead MoreThis Essay Will Explore The Benefit Of Animals Being Used1681 Words   |  7 Pagesbenefit of animals being used in biomedical research, the actions implemented to protect animal welfare as well as other viable options to minimize harm to animals. Science experiments using animals have created a foundation for advances in biomedical sciences. Animals used in medical sciences can be traced back to 384-322 BCE in Greek writings of Aristotle followed by Erasistratus, 304-358 BCE (Dey). Some of the most rudimentary knowledge known to man now was found through animal experimentation. SuchRead MoreAnimal Rights Essay886 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal rights - moral or legal entitlements attributed to nonhuman animals, usually because of the complexity of their cognitive, emotional, and social lives or their capacity to experience physical or emotional pain or pleasure. (Britannia encyclopedia online, n.d.). The definition of animal rights is so clear to us. Human rights need to be protected, so do animal rights. In 1976, in New York City, thousands of cat lovers were beaten when they heard a painful test to be taken for pets’ sexualRead MoreEssay on Bioethics1696 Words   |  7 Pagessciences involves experimentation on all living species, including animals and humans. The effectiveness of medications investigative procedures and treatments must at some point be tested on animals and human beings. Although tests are conducted much more frequently on lab animals, especially those most related to humans, they do not provide sufficient information. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The history of medicine shows that there has always been a need for experimentation on human beings. ExamplesRead More The Ethics of Xenotransplantation Essay examples1615 Words   |  7 Pagesorgans, or even whole organs from one species of animal, and implanting them into another species. The FDA has given their own definition of xenotransplantation which they say is â€Å"any procedure that involves the transplantation, implantation, or infusion into a human recipient of either live cells, tissues, or organs from a non human animal source, or human body fluids, cells, tissues or organs that have had ex vivo contact with live non human animal cells, tissues or organs.† The main interest ofRead MoreEssay on Animal Testing676 Words   |  3 PagesAnimal Testing In the 1880’s, Louis Pasteur conducted one of the most unpleasant series of animal experiments in the history of the fight against infectious disease. Unable to see the organism that causes rabies with the microscopes available, he convinced a skeptical medical community of the microorganism’s existence and also the possibility of vaccinating against it. He did this by doing work on rabbits and dogs. In 1885, after much heart searching, he tried out his rabies vaccine on aRead MoreShould Animals Be Torture And Abused?1178 Words   |  5 PagesWhy should animals have to be torture and abused? Is it because they are not human? Is it because they are not capable of stopping us? Animal use for drug experimentation has sparked controversy around the world. So why are animals for harmful testing? Each year millions of animals such as mice, rats, rabbits, and primates suffer through excruciating amounts of physical and mental torture. In recent years, the use of these animals has been has been strictly criticized by numerous animal rights

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The At The Charlotte Fine Art Gallery - 878 Words

Today started out like any other day. I had been working at the Charlotte Fine Art Gallery for over 6 months now. Before my College Graduation I had worked for the Fine Art Gallery as an Internship the previous summer when they asked me to consider a full time curator position upon graduation. Debra Collin, owner, of the prestigious gallery wanted a fresh new eye for up and coming artists locally and nationally. She was a tough, sophisticated North Carolina socialite who had a passion for art but a stronger desire to control those around her. She sported short, cropped, black hair, pale porcelain well maintained skin and every day she wore a new couture black dress. Debra walked with a confidant and cool demeanor. Her reputation for demanding perfection and deeply over critical nature preceded her. However, when the curator position was presented to me, she assured me my creative eye and instinct for finding new raw talent with innovative techniques would not be hindered. Debr a would allow me full creative control. I was thrilled at this prestigious opportunity and couldn’t wait for Graduation. Flash forward to the day several months later that would open my eyes to the reality that what people say and what they actually mean are two entirely different things. Just because I had been offered a certain position did not necessarily mean, I would actually be allowed to do my job without some complications along the way. My role required that I find a fresh,Show MoreRelatedThe Square Room Of The Public, Private, Secret Exhibition1110 Words   |  5 Pagesleave, Public, Private, Secret serves to affirm your own existence within our world of art and culture. At first glance of the downstairs exhibition space, one can easily become very overwhelmed. The art appears extremely cluttered, with no easily deciphered pattern- it all seems random. Traditional black and white images flow between tv monitors and pop culture icons, seemingly unrelated. Going from fine art photography to popular culture video, the viewer is pushed and pulled from past to presentRead MoreTourism Regions Of British Columbia1106 Words   |  5 Pagesbeaches, making it a perfect place to watch wildlife. Essentially acting as one giant parkland, tourists can enjoy a combination of diverse wildlife and natural environments. The surrounding Gulf Islands contain some more populated areas, where a vibrant arts and crafts culture can also be enjoyed. 3. Cariboo Chilcotin Coast This widespread, coastal area is vast and sparsely populated, acting as a unique wilderness for tourists to experience. Tourists can enjoy guest ranches, traverse the many trailsRead MoreJulie Heffernan Self Portrait as Wunderkabinett Essay971 Words   |  4 Pages | Julie Heffernan Self portrait as Wunderkabinett | | | 7/2/2013 | Museum Visit Assignment | | | Julie Heffernan Self portrait as Wunderkabinett Museum visit assignment The Mint Museum in Charlotte, NC is a timeless building and a work of art itself. The building was designed with a contemporary style and is an outward expression of its artistic, belongings inside. I visited the Museum on Tuesday, July 02, 2013, at around 2 in the afternoon. I was within the museum for about 2  ½ hoursRead MoreGo to The Caribbean1203 Words   |  5 Pagesleg; there are plenty of modestly-priced cafes and casual, inexpensive dining spots around the islands. When youre traveling between St. Thomas and St. John, chances are youll take one of the public ferries that run on a regular schedule between Charlotte Amalie and St. John or between Red Hook and St. John. The only exceptions would be if youre staying at one of the resorts on St. John that provide their own private ferry service to and from St. Thomas. Bahamas The Bahamas has a pleasantRead MoreEssay about Existentialism2347 Words   |  10 Pagesand the demands that they make on the individual, who is seen as a free agent in a deterministic and seemingly meaningless universe† (â€Å"Existentialism†). Existentialism is a difficult philosophy to grasp, but by exploring examples in literature and art, one can come to a better understanding of its basic tenets. The first tenet of existentialism is individualism and alienation, which is revealed in the works The Metamorphosis, â€Å"A Hunger Artist,† and â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.† Each person is an individual;Read MoreCharles Le Brun s Influence On The Palace Of Versailles2671 Words   |  11 PagesCharles Le Brun’s influence on the Palace of Versailles Charlotte Barnett Prof. Dairus Spieth ARTH 4401 November 3, 2014 Charles Le Brun’s Influence on the Palace of Versailles Charles Le Brun, a renowned 17th century artist-politician lived between 1619 and 1690. He gained prominence through his impeccable paintings, coupled with his mastery of creation in the architecture of gardens, buildings, and in sculptures. Le Brun drew his inspiration from Michelangelo, which expanded his horizonsRead MorePainting Analysis in Jane Eyre3436 Words   |  14 PagesDrawing a Breath of Fresh Eyre From the opening chapter of Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre the reader becomes aware of the powerful role that art plays. There is something extraordinary about the pictures Jane admires from other artists, as well as the work she creates herself. Her solitary pastime often operates as an outlet of pain, either past or present, and offers her the opportunity to deal with unpleasant emotions and memories. Jane’s art transcends her isolation by bringing her into contact withRead MoreThe Epithet in the Novel Jane Eyre18849 Words   |  76 PagesINTRODUCTION The present course- paper is devoted to the comprehensive study of stylistic device – the epithet in the literary work â€Å"Jane Eyre† by Charlotte Bronte. The topicality of chosen by us theme lies in the fact that a human being perceives the reality by means of various images. These images exist everywhere: in art, in nature, in thoughts, and in speech in particular. Each of us at least ones created an image. We use different means (stylistic expressive means and devices) to achieveRead MoreWomen, Hair, And Cancer10628 Words   |  43 PagesCity main characters Sex and the City, created by Darren Star, was an HBO production that first aired in 1998 and ended in 2004. The four main characters are Carrie Bradshaw, played by Sarah Jessica Parker, Samantha Jones, played by Kim Cattrall, Charlotte York, played by Kristin Davis, and Miranda Hobbes, played by Cynthia Nixon. The show was mostly popular among women viewers aged 18 to 49. It was so popular that the final episode garnered 10.6 million viewers, with stronger ratings among the 18Read MoreDesigning a Customer Driven Statergy23698 Words   |  95 Pagesfact, it doesn’t want to be. It targets a very different kind of customer with a very different value proposition. Grab yourself some coffee and read on. L ast year, Dunkin’ Donuts paid dozens of faithful customers in Phoenix, Chicago, and Charlotte, North Carolina, $100 a week to buy coffee at Starbucks instead. At the same time, the no-frills coffee chain paid Starbucks customers to make the opposite switch. When it later debriefed the two groups, Dunkin’ says it found them so polarized that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Describ the Types of Stakeholders Involved in Two...

Task 2- P2 I am going to discuss the different stakeholders involved in two contrasting businesses. I am going to explore the stakeholders involved in each business and how they are affected by the company. My first organisation is Boots Alliance, a pharmaceutical shop on most high streets. My second organisation is Oxfam charity. Both provide goods or services to the public; however they have different stakeholders affecting their decisions. Stakeholders are anyone that affects or can affect a business’s decisions. This could be a consumer, an employee, a supplier or many others. Boots is a high street pharmaceutical store and therefore directly affects the customers. Customers determine what new products the company will make and†¦show more content†¦Oxfam’s consumers would be the people who donate and those who benefit from the help Oxfam give. Donators determine what the business can do that year as they determine the amount raised. Consumers can donate through money donations, buying goods in Oxfam shops, craft fairs, badges that raise awareness of the charity etc. The Donator gains a feel good factor as they have help another which is what continues to keep a charity like Oxfam in business. Consumers that buy products from an Oxfam shop will still want decent quality goods and therefore the shops must ensure all donated goods are up to standards or they will lose donations. On the other side of consumers, those that are helped by the charity determine where the money is allocated in a small way. The charity decides which area to focus on whether it be HIV, providing clean water for communities or medical care and this is influenced by those that need help. Employees of Oxfam are also divided into two categories; volunteers and paid employees. In an organisation like Oxfam it will mostly be volunteers. Volunteers although they are working for free must be treated fairly as if it were a paid job or they may not continue to do the work. Volunteers are not very easy to find as many people have full time jobs and the majority of people aren’t willing to work for free. Due to this Oxfam must ensure all volunteers are happy and so want to continue to help. There are also a

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mooting Slowman v BeAssured Ltd

Question: Court of Appeal (Civil Division)Slowman v BeAssured LtdJudy Slowman made a claim on her buildings insurance following damage caused by a burst pipe at her home. The insurance company, BeAssured Ltd, wrote back stating that they regarded Ms Slowman as being partly to blame for the damage to the property as the damage was caused during renovation and decorating work being done by Ms Slowman.BeAssured Ltd sent a typed letter to Ms Slowman, offering to pay a proportion of the claim made by Ms Slowman. This letter, which was produced in evidence before the first instance court, contained the following features. There was a sentence that read, We can pay a proportion of the claim, to the maximum of 50%, in settlement of this claim. The figure of 50% had been underlined in blue pen, and a figure of 25% had been written in the margin of the letter, along with what appeared to be someones initials. The letter had been signed, in black ink, by Mr Penpusher, Senior Claims Assessor. At first ins tance, it was conceded by BeAssured Ltd that the signature and the purported amendment were written by two different staff members at the firm.The figure of 50% was still clearly visible on the letter. Ms Slowman, in evidence, stated that this was the figure that she had in mind when she had accepted the firms settlement of the claim. Ms Slowman further stated, that had BeAssured Ltd actually sought to offer only 25% of the claim, then they would have retyped the letter in a more professional manner.Be assured duly sent Ms Slowman a cheque for 25% of her original claim. Ms Slowman brought legal action for breach of contract, and sought the outstanding balance of the offered settlement.At first instance, the district judge dismissed Ms Slowmans claim on the following grounds;1. There was no contract between Ms Slowman and BeAssured Ltd as there was no clear and true agreement between them; and, alternately,2. Even if a contract could be found, it would have been void for mistake.Ms S lowman now appeals to the Court of Appeal on the grounds that the district judge had erred in his findings on these two points.You are to act as counsel for ms slowman and are required to produce; A) A skeleton argument showing that she is entitled to the outstanding monies on the grounds that there was indeed a valid contract between the parties.B) A verbal presentation explaining these arguments before the court of appeal. Answer: Part A In the court of appeals: Slowman Appellant -and- BeAssured Ltd. Respondent Appellants Skeleton Argument Ground 1 1. The district judge erred in holding that there existed no contract between Ms Slowman and BeAssured Ltd. on the basis that there was no clear or true argument between the two parties. 2. It must be noted that the essentials of the valid contract is based in the essential elements including the presence of offer, acceptance, consideration, intention and capacity. Therefore in order to prove that the contract between the parties is valid it is essential to prove the presence of these elements. 3. A letter was provided to the appellant from the respondent with regard to the settlement of claims. Hence the contractual agreement was made through a written agreement which can be provided as evidence. Cited here is the case of Esso Petroleum v Mardon [1976] QB 801 dealing with written contracts with expressed terms. The presence of a written agreement is evidence enough to prove the existence of a contract. 4. In order to validate a contract the presence of consensus ad idem is essential between the parties. The case of Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 , the Court stated that along with consensus ad idem it was necessary that the parties have communicated the same thing by their conduct and words. Hence in the given case it can be observed that the 50% word was marked and underlined but it was not stroked out. This indicated that the purpose of the party writing the agreement did not indicate to cancel the percentage and it was considered essential to the contract. This was what the written contract had meant. Hence consensus ad idem was present in the contract. 5. The settlement claim had adequate consideration that was to be paid to the appellant. Hence the given contract also had the presence of a valid consideration. Cited here is the case of Currie v Misa (1875) LR 10 Ex 153; (1875-76) LR 1 App Case 554 on valid consideration. Hence the essential element of a contract which is consideration is also present in the given case. 6. Further, the next important ele ment in a valid contract is the presence of consent of both parties. The consent of the appellant is apparent and the consent of the respondent was evident from the signature in the written agreement. The consent given here by both parties were without the existence of any undue influence, coercion, misrepresentation. Hence the consent required for a valid contract was also present in the given case. 7. Given the following details and citation it is evident that all the basic requirements that is required in any given valid contract is present in the written agreement. The written agreement had a proper offer, acceptance, consideration, consensus ad idem, valid consent of both parties and hence all the essential elements that is required to enforce a valid contract. 8. This provides that the district court ruling that there was no valid contract was erred. The contract between the appellant and the respondent was a valid contract and hence the appellant is entitled to receive the ex tra money from that ground. Ground 2 1. The district judge erred in holding that even if any contract existed between the parties, the contract would be void on the grounds of mistake. 2. With regard to minor modifications, the law states that such modifications may be hand written on the document. However, in such cases it is necessary that the changes are stated properly and the initials of the person are given next to the change before the signing of the entire document. Further what is even more essential is that if the other party also agrees to the changes then the agreement will have the signature of the other party as well. 3. The term in the contract between the parties stated that they are willing to pay a compensation amount based on the settlement claim and that amount would be 50% of the total claim that was made by the appellant. When the letter was received by the appellant there was a mark in blue below 50% and at the margin 25% was written in blue ink. Under the common law, the rule is once a contract i s signed it cannot be modified until and unless all the parties to the contract have agreed to the modifications. 4. In accordance to the rules of modification, firstly, the modifications were not clear in the given contract since 50% mark was not stroked out but only underlined. The initials were not written beside the change made but near the margin making the so called modification even more ambiguous. Further the modification was not signed by the appellant making such a modification totally invalid. 5. Hence in the given contract the modification made was not a valid modification. 6. Further with regard to mistake in the given contract, common law states that in such cases of unilateral mistake where on party to the contract is mistaken with regard to the terms of the contract, the court generally uphold those contracts until it is identified that the non-mistaken party is aware of the mistake. Cited in this regard is the case of Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 . 7. In the pr esent case, even if the deed be considered as a mistake, the contract will not be considered as void since the court considers only those contracts as void when the non - mistaking party is aware of the mistake. In the given case, the non - mistaking party is not aware of the mistake and this case is being raised. Therefore, even if the court considers it to be a mistake the contract cannot be considered as void as a result of the mistake. The Appellant submits that the appeal be heard. Part B: The case involves the validity of the contract existing between Ms. Slowman and BeAssured Ltd. Primarily, in accordance to the judgment delivered by the District Court, the contract is firstly invalid and secondly even if it is considered valid it is void as a result of mistake. I hereby, point as stated in my skeleton argument that the contract has all the essential elements present that is necessary for the validation of contract. This ranges from offer, acceptance, consideration to capacity and intention. The second argument on the presence of any mistake is also invalid since as has been stated in the argument, the rules of common law were not abided with regard to the modification. Also in accordance to the case of Smith v Hughes, unless the non-mistaken party is aware that it is a mistake the court upholds the contract. Hence, claims of the district court are not valid on the grounds given above. Bibliography Andrews N,Contract Law(Cambridge University Press 2011) Austen-Baker R,Implied Terms In English Contract Law(Edward Elgar 2011) Beale H,Mistake And Non-Disclosure Of Facts(Oxford University Press 2012) Busch D,Indirect Representation In European Contract Law(Kluwer Law International 2005) Cua C, 'Towards A General Notion Of Good Faith In English Contract Law' SSRN Journal Furmston M,How Modern Is English Contract Law?(Centro di studi e ricerche di diritto comparato e straniero 2000) Grundmann S and Mazeaud D,General Clauses And Standards In European Contract Law(Kluwer Law International 2006) Jewell M,An Introduction To English Contract Law(Nomos-Verl-Ges 2002) McKendrick E,Contract Law(Palgrave Macmillan 2007) SIMS V, 'Good Faith In English Contract Law Of Triggers And Concentric Circles' [2004] Ankara Law Review Spark G, 'Mistake As A Vitiating Factor In English Contract Law' SSRN Journal Zhou Q, 'Misrepresentation In English Contract Law From An Economic Perspective' SSRN Journal Currie v Misa(1875) LR 10 Ex Esso Petroleum v Mardon[1976] QB Smith v Hughes(1871) LR 6 QB

Friday, April 10, 2020

The Intrusive Author in Milan Kunderas The Unbear Essay Example For Students

The Intrusive Author in Milan Kunderas The Unbear Essay The Intrusive Author in Milan Kunderas The Unbearable Lightness of BeingThe Intrusive Author in Milan Kunderas The Unbearable Lightness of BeingIn an interview he gave after the reprinting of one of his later novels, Milan Kundera said, most eloquently, that the stupidity of the world comes from having an answer for everything the wisdom of the novel comes from having a question for everything (qtd. in OBrien 4). This statement is one most indicative of the unique authorial style found in all of Kunderas works, particularly his most famous novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Unlike previous traditional, non-autobiographical novels, Kundera chooses to indirectly reveal himself as the narrator, who, while omniscient in the control of his characters, poses questions of deep philosophical interest that even he cannot answer. This method has become problematic, however, as many critics have wrongly proclaimed this technique to represent the authors hatred for the totalitarian regime under which his novel was written; in doing so, not only have they wrongly labeled Kundera a passionate defender of Western culture (Angyal 4), but they also have ignored the larger, philosophical issues that Kundera attempts to accomplish in the novel. While many of the themes in the novel undoubtedly reveal the totalitarian regime for what it is, it will be argued that the role of the intrusive author serves to create a sense of play and freedom of movement that digs deeper than history or politics to get to the heart of more important philosophical issues. We will write a custom essay on The Intrusive Author in Milan Kunderas The Unbear specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now An analysis of Kunderas structural functions and choices within The Unbearable Lightness of Being will provide a closer view of the openness, or play he strives for. One of the primary functions of Kundera as an intrusive narrator in the novel is to establish his characters as creations of his own mind. Whereas in traditional novels, the fictitious characters are assumed to be real in some imaginary world, Kundera almost immediately admits that it would be senseless for the author to try convince the reader that his characters once actually livedthey were born of a stimulating phrase or two from a basic situation (39). His characters were created in light of the authors contemplations. However, this does not automatically make the characters flat types, as some have argued. To the contrary, the authors admittance of the characters as fictional creations whom he has pondered very deeply lend them more depth and credibility than a character designed simply to serve a purpose. In other words, in this particular novel, the story does not create the characters, but the characters create the story. This enables Kundera a greater sense of structural openness and play, or freedom of movement, in the novel. According to Hana Pichova, a narrators directing function includes the use ofthe repeating prolepsis or advance notice, a narratological technique that fragments the narrative through temporal disorder (217). Kundera utilizes such a technique first and foremost in the relationship between Tomas and Tereza, for example: It may well be those few fortuities which set her love in motion and provided her with a source of energy she had not yet exhausted at the end of her days. Before coming to the end of the book, Kundera has already described Terezas undying love for Tomas as he sees it. According to Pichova, this technique serves to establish the author as omniscient director of the novel, enabling him to create a textual world over which he has power and control. However, as Pichova notes, Kunderas narrator is obviously not interested in the power of regulation on the thematic level. He subverts his potential power by revealing himself to the reader. When considered in the context of t otalitarian regimes, the act of revelation is one most destructive to its very goals. Through his frequent use of I and advanced notice of things to come, Pichova argues, Kundera has disowned the faceless gaze' of totalitarianism. However, as Kundera himself has said, a literary work that can not survive outside of a historical context has completely missed its target. According to John OBrien in his article Milan Kundera: Meaning, Play and the Role of the Author, the intrusive author figure in The Unbearable Lightness of Being is established less in terms as a literary rebellion against totalitarianism than for the purpose of advocating literary play that goes against the kitschy sameness that is characteristic of both East and West:Take out this intrusive dynamic, and the text is far less radical, because it is precisely this I that rips away the facade of verisimilitude, that questions the possibility of meaning, and that carries through a recognizable disgust for any system that refuses free play with codes whether political (Communist or Western), linguistic, or literary. (OBrien 4)Going back to Pichovas argument about advanced notice, then, it is more important to note the function of advanced notice as Kunderas way of eliminating the plot of suspense. By establishing Terezas love for Tomas as one that will not die by novels end, Kundera relinquishes the novel of any kind of suspense. This is also seen later in the novel when the only mention of Tomass and Terezas death comes in the form of a letter Sabina receives, followed by a chapter in which Tomas and Tereza are still alive. The elimination of suspense from the novel allows the reader to step back from the plot and engross him/herself, more importantly, in the overarching meanings and questions the author has posed. .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .postImageUrl , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:hover , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:visited , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:active { border:0!important; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:active , .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299 .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9f3a49cec75b13936cdfe2e0c8d92299:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Photosynthesis EssayKunderas technique for asking questions is central to the books self-titled exploration of meaning, most notably in the question of lightness and weight. While, as Pichova notes, he indeed directs the text insofar as the events and characters are completely of his control, Kunderas posing of questions is never paired with a definite answer. For example, in the Second Chapter of the Part One, Lightness and Weight, Kundera poses many questions:We might find division into positive and negative poles childishly simple except for one difficulty: which one is positive, weight or lightness? Parmenides responded: lightness is positive, weight negative. Was he c orrect or not? That is the question. The only answer that Kundera provides is attributed to a source that is not himself, and furthermore, he questions the answer without showing favor to one side. This establishes the pursuit of meaning as a personal endeavor that the author cannot answer for anyone but himself, and the reader for him/herself alike. According to John OBrien, Kundera exploits this technique repeatedly to assert his aesthetics of ambiguitythey do not contribute to an understanding as much as they are inconclusive in comparably similar ways (7). This makes it notably harder for the reader to find answers. However, this is arguably the very goal for which Kundera has strived. The entire narrative of the novel is devoted to the characters struggles to find (or escape from) meaning in their lives. To make that meaning easily accessible to the reader would be to negate the entire exploration of the themes of lightness and weight. Just as the questions that the novel poses offer either many answers or none in The Unbearable Lightness of Being, so does the very nature of language itself. Kundera uses the intrusive author figure to attack the arbitrary nature of language, and give it meaning that applies to his own characters, particularly in the relationship between Franz and Sabina. Kundera describes Franz and Sabinas inability to understand each other on a deep, emotional level: if people meet when they are older, like Franz and Sabina, the musical compositions of their lives are more or less complete, and every motif, every object, every word means something different to each of them (89). The ironically lengthy Short Dictionary of Misunderstood Words underscores the clash of codes and cliches that is produced beneath the deceivingly smooth surface of language (OBrien 10). Kunderas intrusive voice strips language of any universal meaning and demonstrates the problematic relationship it creates between Franz and Sabina. Similarly, Kundera uses the intrusive author to deconstruct the language of gender roles outside the scope of totalitarian politics. While in the text Tereza (the woman) indeed sees herself as weak and Tomas (the man) as strong, as OBrien notes, pages before the end of the novel, she betrays the inadequacy of the signifiers weak and strong to explain the complexity of the apparently simple roles (12). Furthermore, it is the intrusive author figure who asks the reader to examine the situation more closely:We all have a tendency to consider strength the culprit and weak the innocent victim. But now Tereza realized that in her case, the opposite was true. Even her dreams, as if aware of the single weakness in a man otherwise strong, made a display of her suffering to him, thereby forcing him to retreat. Her weakness was aggressive and kept forcing him to capitulate until eventually he lost his strength and was transformed into the rabbit in her arms (310). The intrusive author deconstructs the meaning of weak and strong for the reader, not to show his control of the text but to discredit the arbitrary nature of language as he had previously done with A Short Dictionary of Misunderstood Words. Kundera reveals the true meaning of the words much in the same way of Sabinas art. The question still remains as to Kunderas overarching goal in writing The Unbearable Lightness of Being. When considering this, one should consider Kunderas spoken feelings on the value of written art: If you cannot view the art that comes to you from Prague, Budapest, or Warsaw in any other way than by means of this wretched political code, you murder it, no less brutally than the worst of the Stalinist dogmatists. And you are quite unable to hear its true voice. The importance of this art does not lie in the fact that it pillories this or that political regime but that, on the strength of social and human experience of a kind people here in the West cannot even im agine, it offers new testimony about mankind (qtd. in OBrien 6). .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .postImageUrl , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:hover , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:visited , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:active { border:0!important; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:active , .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub72f02e9575bd0b98e84b86f8226839c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Education and Richard Rodriguez EssayWhile certainly thrusting off the techniques of the Social Realist novel, this novel seeks to achieve greater ends than establishing the historical context of Communism and his stance against it. What then, is Kunderas true enemy? It brings to mind Sabinas statement, My enemy is kitsch, not Communism! It is arguable that this mantra embodies Kunderas overriding theme. A greater part of the novel is notably devoted to the discussion of kitsch. Most European credos, religious or political, state that the world is good and human existence positive: Kundera calls this categorical agreement with being. He points out that something like shit, however, has no place in any of these credos. Their aesthetic ideal is instead kitsch, which can be considered the absolute denial of shit.In other words, in order to present a consistent, idealized, and romantic view of the world, all of these credos erase what is uncomfortable to them, and in a sense become cliched to the point of entering collective memory. As Kundera describes,Kitsch causes two tears to flow in quick succession. They first tear says:How nice to see children running on the grass! The second tear says: HowNice to be moved, together with all mankind, by children running on thegrass!(251). Kitsch, then, is the foundation for brotherhood, eventually leading to the destruction of the individual. Just as nothing inappropriate or marring can be allowed in the aesthetic of kitsch, individuals cannot be allowed either. The Grand March, therefore, is based on people marching in step, screaming slogans together with one voice. Sabina points out that this ideal is actually much worse than any violent or imperfect totalitarian reality, and though it exists fundamentally in Communism, its existence is not limited to simply political spheres. As in the rest of the book, the intrusive author figure appears in the discussion of kitsch with the specific pronoun I, particularly, When I say totalitarian, what I mean is that everything that infringes on kitsch must be banished for lifein this light, we can regard the gulag as a septic tank used by totalitarian kitsch to dispose of its refuse (252). Here lies the very indicator of Kunderas overall message. By leaving totalitarian un-capitalized and pairing it with the word kitsch, Kundera has created an entirely different term altogether. Rather than describing some kind of government regime, totalitarian comes to simply embody the idea of kitsch. While kitsch is a characteristic of totalitarianism, more importantly, totalitarianism is a characteristic of kitsch, which, as Kundera points out, exists in the Western world as well as the East. While the setting of Kunderas novel against the backdrop of the Soviet occupation of Prague is not one that can or should be easily ignored, it is important to understand Kunderas purposes outside of this historical context. This is the fundamental purpose of the intrusive author figure in The Unbearable Lightness of Being: to strip the traditional novel of kitschy, political codes and grind beneath the surface to greater, more complicated questions of existence that, while unanswerable by the author, are more fruitful pursuits than historical or political messages. The philosophy can be summed up in Sabinas mantra, On the surface, the intelligible lie; underneath the surface, the unintelligible truth.Works CitedAngyal, Andrew. Review: The Unbearable Lightness of Being. MagillOnLiterature. EBSCOHost Research Databases. Online. Available: 1-5. Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. New York: Harper and RowPublishers, Inc., 1984OBrien, John. Milan Kundera: Meaning, Play, and the Role of the Author. Studies in Contemporary Fiction. Fall 1992. Vol. 34, Issue 1. 1-20. Pichova, Hana. The Narrator in Milan Kunderas The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Slavic and East European Journal. 1992. Vol. 36, Issue 32. 217-226.

Monday, March 9, 2020

The New Art Of Managing People

The New Art Of Managing People Introduction Organizational management is a holistic issue that requires absolute focusing so as to ensure that all aspects making-up the organization are running effectively and they meet the organizations strategic objectives.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The New Art Of Managing People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational management entails the alignment of the organizations mainstream resources such as the financial resources, the human resource aspect among others towards meeting the obligations of the organization to ensure that the organization is a profitable venture and it meets the needs and wants of the targeted customer. However, it should be noted that human resource is the most important resource of an organization. The effective and efficient running of a business should be based on the belief of continued innovations by the organization, the organization’s ability to adapt to the c hanges in its environment and the overall ability of the organization to integrate itself with the drastic changes in technology. This has made the efficient running of a business hard as there are many problems encountered in the management process. Understanding of the Book The need to develop strategies that are required to resolve issues that relate to management of personnel has been necessitated by the modern organizational management dynamism. The New Art of Managing People is a book that aims at coming up with strategies that can be applied by a management to resolve some of the problems that influence effective management in the organization. The book subject matter articulates around the creation of friendly and productive ties that exist between the management and the employees. The authors of this book have stated that effective management of an organization should build trust between all the relevant stakeholders as this would improve the organization’s performan ce. Therefore, they come up with practical techniques and procedures that can be used to resolve the issues in the organization on matters pertaining interaction between the employees and the management.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The book also suggests several process improvement strategies, proper human resource development strategies, transactional analysis of activities in the organization and effective decision making processes. In order that this book remains relevant as the years go by, the authors have attempted to relate these issues to the modern management. In this book, Hunsaker and Alessandra, (2008) establishes that management can forge an effective employee friendly working atmosphere that will ensure employees productivity is upped. The book develops ways that can be applied to develop interpersonal skills that can be helpful in the process of improving the communication between the management and the employees. The book postulates that the adoption of new skills will improve the employer vis-a-vis the employees relationship (Hunsaker Alessandra, 2008). Such an improved relationship has been cited as the backbone of the modern organizations in the sense that such an organization is grounded on effective relationship of trust and mutual respect. This means that the management does not necessarily need to use coercive forces to induce performance as employees are self-motivated. The book stipulates that the managers of an organization and all the other superior officials of the organization are not aware that there exists a problem in the organization with regard to the building and the maintenance of healthy and productive relationships in the organization’s human resource department. The authors have insisted that managers need to be in good relationship with their subordinates meaning that they should be able to understand the predicaments of their workers. However, this has not been the case. The relationship between the managers and their subordinates has been rocky because managers have not been trained on how they should interact with their subordinates effectively. Hunsaker and Alessandra, (2008), have discovered that many organization’s superiors are well trained in business management, but they have not been technically trained on effective methods to interact with their subordinates.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The New Art Of Managing People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When compared to their preparedness in dealing with the technical aspect of the organization, the lack of effective training of management of their employees poorly prepares them to deal with people’s problems that may arise in the organization (Hunsaker Alessandra, 2008). Therefore, this book aims at helping managers develop s kills that will enable them to tap the potential of its subordinates in undertaking the activities of the organization which will spell absolute success for the organization, the management and the other organization employees. According to the authors, there are several ways that can guarantee proper treatment of employees. First, the management should respect its employees especially on their abilities to execute their designated responsibilities as hired to perform. Such an approach by the management can help greatly in the process of improving self-autonomy of workers. The authors of The New Art of Managing People have developed strategies that can be applied by people in management positions to evaluate the working conditions at an organization. Hunsaker and Alessandra, (2008), also presented strategies that can be used to improve those working conditions. The authors argue that it is very difficult for the management to change from its old habit of directing the subordinates b y issuing orders that are deemed implementable by the subordinates under the direct supervision of the superiors. Besides this, the book formulates ways that will ensure gradual transition from the old habits of management to new approaches in management issues. It has also been noted that transitions may be prone to mistakes and thus leniency may be required to ensure that employees are not reprimanded for this mistakes. It is further argues that the management should come up with a good transition process that guarantees an effective implementation of the new policy in the relationship between the management and its employees. This process can be achieved using a five-step process that is suggested in the book.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This process ensures that managers employ an interactive approach that will overhaul the interaction process in the organization. It holds that interactive managers have the opportunity of understanding their subordinates and thus, developing the required communication skills that will be applied in the development of mutual relationships in the organization. The book also postulates that an effective approach to management should be one that is promoted by open mindedness exhibited by the management and the organization of employees. These ideas suggest an outcome of friendly and extremely productive working conditions for all the organization stakeholders, thus improving on the organization profitability (Hunsaker Alessandra, 2008). The book holds that it is crucial that the management understands the differences that are exhibited by its employees and thus, take the necessary steps that will maximize the organizations gain from the diversity identified. The identification of the differences in employees behavior should motivate the management to handle this matter in a way that will ensure the differences are harmonized with the organization objectives. Importance of the Book Professor Hunsaker and Dr. Allessandra are seasoned and highly respected management experts and consultants and their combined effort in writing this book has stressed the vitality of an effective and efficient management of any organization. The book has put it in a nut shell that the process of managing the employees of an organization is an ever-changing field. The dynamics of management are constantly evolving; therefore, the management concepts that are proposed and being used at a particular time in an organization are likely to be obsolete in only a few years. The authors of this book have attributed the change in ways of managing organizations to the fundamental realization that human beings are constantly modifying how they accomplish different tasks from the previously used procedures. The business environments and the state policies that govern organizations are changing constantly, forcing the management to conversely adapt to the new demands. These changes have pushed the costs of production, training of employees in the organization and keeping the employees highly motivated up. The authors hold that this will continue escalating over the coming years. Therefore, a need to overcome these unprecedented adversaries in the organization management has to be countered or else the corporate world will be doomed to a disastrous tiding to the management. This book is written with the main agenda of coming up with ways that will overcome the traditional methods that dictated the manager-employee relationship in an organizations practice. The authors have illustrated vividly that an organization that has a friendly and productive employee-management relationship experience substantial benefits that are spread through the organization. The book is very crucia l in offering the organizational management the practical strategies with well laid out guidelines that can be applied by the management to achieve the ultimate goal of developing interpersonal skills that are held by the superiors. The acquisition of these interpersonal skills by the management will help in forging a good employee-employer relationship by identifying the differences that exist in its workforce in regard to appropriate use of knowledge, assessment of the current employee working conditions, improvement of the areas that are deemed to require upgrading, and lastly, in the overall creation of trust between the superiors and their subordinates. The book has identified that the acquisition of person-to-person skills that are held by all the employees of an organization is crucial to the overall central development of good teams. The book has stressed that letting the employees express their individual personalities will aid each one of them to achieve their potential an d consequently, to self-actualize. This reduces the stress and animosity in the organizations workforce that is brought about by strenuous bureaucracy. An overall positive interaction spirit is formulated in all the sectors of the organization. Consequently, this stimulates increment in organization productivity and profitability. The book gives very clear and vivid insights into the world of management to those who want to understand the concept of managing people. The book looks at management from a critical perspective of enhancing productivity through proper leadership skills that are geared towards having a robust working condition and cohesion among workers as a means towards achieving the set goals and objectives. This calls for the creation of a system that is efficient and effective in its dispensation of the identified mandate. Management in form of human resource entails having a workforce that is efficient in its coordination and that is free of stress associated with wo rk may it be long working hours or even the working environment. One of the weaknesses that I found in this book is that it does not cover the issue of stress management. Stress can be defined as lack of the ability to meet the demands that one is required to meet causing a feeling of anxiety and unnecessary pressure. Stress can have internal sources or external sources. Internal sources of stress at workplaces include the levels of bureaucracies and red tapes that are present at a specific work station, the time that workers are required to work and finally from the level of cooperation that is exhibited by the workers. External sources of stress include the conditions at the homes of workers or any other outside stressor. The most profound external factor is the work-family linkage, where social issues of family are imposed upon the workers. It is important to note that family issues will always affect level of competence either directly or indirectly as it affects both emotional and cognitive aspects. Despite the fact that the book was published in 2008, the authors might not have anticipated the impact of changing concepts of business management as the recommendations that the book gives may not be very effective in todays management of human capital. Due to such weaknesses the book may not be very helpful in offering technical insights for advanced levels of management students as there are other books that addresses the issues of management of personnel in more advance methods and offers more modern insights when compared to those offered in this book. This text may be better suited for beginners as opposed to advanced students of management. Another aspect of the book that I felt was a weakness is that the authors did not build on the necessity of creating a positive spirit in a company environment. The author focuses largely on managing the company in a structured way where management of various organizational aspects is given a horizontal approach, me aning that the communication model that is advocated for in the book is more of instructional nature. Such modes of communication bring about the feelings of superiority versus inferiority which may be detrimental in the process of management of human capital in organizations. Although this mode has proved to be efficient in dispensing work instructions, it has been categorized as being an anti-social approach at the workplace. Building a positive spirit in an organization entails letting the employees feel a sense of ownership of the success of the company. This allows them to own the success as being a part of them, which encourages workers to pursue teamwork. This is also crucial in individual empowerment. However, this leads to unnecessary competition as each of the staff would want to get an opportunity to be recognized as the source of a particular success. Another concept that the book has failed to cover adequately is that of seeking to reduce stress that is not related to w ork, but which impacts on the performance of the organization. Managers should, through the human resource desk, be able to have a therapist who should look into the employees psychological state of mind like depression, stress and other habits that may make such employees ineffective in their productivity. It is imperative that although the main areas of focus in workplace stress management are stressors that are work related, external stressors need to be addressed to ensure that the productivity of employees is maintained at its peak to guarantee maximum productivity in the organization. Lastly, although the book gives an insight on how to increase productivity and profitability, it is disappointing to note that some of the suggestions and initiatives given do not meet todays world dynamism of management, although they have a high potential of success. For instance, some books in management advocate that managers should come up with an interactive approach and go on to give the c oncept of a bicycle wheel where the rear wheel is the technical management and the front wheel is said to be the peoples knowledge, it is imperative to mention that the first goal of any institution is to make profit and, therefore, the issue of peoples knowledge is taken as a facade because it doesnt exist in real businesses, reason being that the workers views and opinions are not really taken into consideration. Although the authors advocates for the satisfaction of the employees needs and values as being the long-term measure of increasing their productivity, the satisfaction of employees to their maximum may not be realistic as it may be hard for organizations to meet all the needs of the employees and enable them to get ultimate satisfaction as far as their cognitive and social needs are concerned. Although I do disagree with some of the recommendations and opinions expressed by the authors, I find some of the strategies outlined being authentic and highly valuable. For instan ce, it is important for any organization to have a good working relationship between the management and the employees. This does not only give a sense of ownership of the organization by the employees, but it allows for sincerity and improved levels of competence that does not require the presence of managers to achieve the organizations objective. This means that employees continuously feel that they are appreciated by their employer and thus their commitment to the company remains undivided. When employees own up the organization procedures, they feel that it is their prerogative to deliver to the best of their ability, which translates to improved organizational productivity. In conclusion, it is important to note that Hunsaker and Alessandras work offers wonderful insights as far as management of human capital is concerned. The content of this book can be applied at the workplace in a number of ways. Although it has been noted in this review that this book has some suggestions t hat are not in line with today’s dynamism in management of human capital, the authors have managed to give many new insights that are of great relevance in management of workers. The book is also excellent for management students as it offers the necessary knowledge especially to beginners as they learn what is required of them as managers of human capital. Therefore, the book can be recommended to all management students especially those that are interested in advancing their knowledge on fruitful approaches to management of personnel. Reference Hunsaker, P. Alessandra, T. (2008). The New Art of Managing People. New York: Free Press.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Financial Managment about (Mergers & Acquisitions) Essay

Financial Managment about (Mergers & Acquisitions) - Essay Example Periodic environmental appraisal and organizational appraisal lead to generation of strategic alternatives. The strategic alternatives are then evaluated in the context of organizational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Expansion strategy is followed when an organization wishes to broaden the scope of its customer groups, functions, alternative technologies etc. Merger and Acquisition (or takeover) strategies basically involve the external approach to expansion. In this process basically two or occasionally more than two entities are involved. Mergers take place when the objectives of the buyer company and the seller company are matched to a large extent, while takeovers or acquisitions are usually based on the strong motivation of the buyer company. Takeovers are frequently classified as hostile takeovers (which are against the wishes of the acquired company) and friendly takeovers (by mutual consent in which case they could also be described as a merger). The purported key principle behind buying a company is to create shareholder value over and above that of the sum of the two companies. In a nutshell the key factors leading to M& A are; A merger is a combination of two or more organizations in which one acquires the assets and liabilities of the other in exchange for shares or cash, or both the organizations are dissolved, and assets and liabilities are combined and new stock is issued. For the organization which is acquired it is merger. For the organization which acquires another, it is acquisition. If both organizations dissolve their identity to create a new organization, it is called consolidation or amalgamation. Mergers are also classified as; Horizontal Mergers: ... For the organization which acquires another, it is acquisition. If both organizations dissolve their identity to create a new organization, it is called consolidation or amalgamation. Mergers are also classified as; Horizontal Mergers: When there is a combination of two or more organizations in the same business, or of companies engaged in similar aspects of production or marketing processes. For example a steel making company combining with another steel making company. Vertical Mergers: When there is a combination of two or more organizations, not necessarily in the same business, which creates complimentary situation either in terms of supply of materials (inputs) or marketing of goods and services (outputs). For example a footwear manufacturing company combining with a leather tannery or with a chain of shoe retail stores. Concentric Mergers: When there is a combination of two or more organizations related to each other either in terms of customer functions, customer groups or alternative technologies used. For example a computer motherboard making company combining with a peripheral devices making company. Conglomerate Mergers: When there is a combination of two or more organizations unrelated to each other, either in terms of customer functions, customer groups, or alternative technologies used. For example an IT company joining hands with a footwear manufacturing company. For mergers to take place two organizations have to act. Both these organization have certain set of reasons for taking this step and accordingly they go into preparations and negotiations. Four key aspects to getting acquisitions right; Pre-deal phase: It includes negotiations and rigorous due diligence like business due diligence, people due diligence, accounting due diligence